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Medicine and Traditional Plants

When one is searching out traditional medicine plants, keep in mind that a proper thank you needs to be done for each medicine, and to only take what you need. It has been said that often times, medicine cannot be seen until it is needed, and then it appears in a very conspicuous spot. Elders have said that when searching for medicines, to always take tobacco with you. It used to be in the past, that the person seeking the medicine would take tobacco and/or a few pieces of pure silver (dimes for example, when they were made of silver) to trade for medicine plants, or in some cases, they would take with them Little Peoples Tobacco (Lobelia Inflata) to ask the Little People for their help in locating the medicines that they needed. It has also been said that should you notice a plant all of a sudden begin to grow near your home, or under your bedroom window, this is a sign that you or someone in your home needs this medicine. It will continue to grow until it is no longer needed.

The medicines listed in this section, are only intended as information and should not be ingested by anyone without the proper guidance and after consultation with a Traditional Healer and/or your family doctor.

English/Latin NameOnkwehonwe NameUse
AlderOwí:raUsed for a physic or emetic, retains vigour, biliousness and for craziness.
American Ginseng RootTekarentokenUsed for focus and mental sharpness, physical fatigue, immuno-stimulant, raise low blood pressure, depression, exhaustion, weakness and for body sores.
American Spikenard Used for rheumatism, diarrhoea, cuts, whooping cough, to get more strength, tonic for women, irregular menses due to colds, blood medicine, tapeworms and when a woman has a miscarriage.
Angelica/Bear Root Used for stimulant, expectorant, diuretic, colds, heart medicine, blood medicine, said to resist poisons, flatulent colic and heartburn, liver and spleen issues, digestive malfunctions, old ulcers, nervous exhaustion, epilepsy, frostbite, fever and chills, flu, pneumonia, rheumatism, female weakness, sprains and hysteria. Angelica is also a protection medicine
Ash (white)Káneron Used as a physic, stomach cramps and for snake bites
AspenOnerahtón:taUsed for itch, pleurisy, colic, measles, cramps, syphilis, worms and to stop bed-wetting.
Astragalus Root Used to lower blood pressure, strengthens immune system, viral infections, prevent and treat the common cold, increases endurance, frequent skin infections and chronic fatigue. 
Balsam FirOtshohkó:ton Used for coughs, cuts, sores, ulcers, colds and gonorrhoea.
BasswoodOhósera Used for babies that don’t yet walk but should, burns or scalds, urinary issues, severe injuries, pain and picks you up when you are run down.
Bear Berry (Kinnikinnik) Used for urinary infection, diabetes for excessive sugar, diseases of urinary organs, antiseptic, promotes sweating to break fever, tobacco substitute and can also be used as a douche.
Bergamot/Bee Balm Used for acne, eczema, skin disorders and inflammations, respiratory difficulties, anxiety, depression and stress related conditions, sore throats, tonsillitis, colds, flu, psoriasis, scabies, chicken pox and head lice, softening of the brain, headache, constipation in children, lack of energy, boils and herpes.
BittersweetTa’tatá:se, O’nhahtawà:konh Used for teething, irregular menses due to colds, fever and soreness related to pregnancy, kidney trouble after childbirth and high blood pressure. Bittersweet is also rubbed on the lips of misbehaving children.
Black AshÉhsa Used for painful urination and rheumatism.
Black Cherryé:ri, Eri’kó:wa (O)/Orikkó:wa(A) Used for consumption, cuts, headaches, colds, fevers, soreness, inflammation of lungs, bronchitis, too much gall, sores all over body and as a blood medicine.
Black Cohosh Used for menopause symptoms, cramps and arthritis.
Black Eye SusanTeyohontáthe Used for worms in children and heart medicine.
Black Horehound Used for motion sickness, sedative, mild astringent, stimulate menstrual, relive nausea and vomiting, spasms, and expels worms and discharges phlegm.
Black RaspberryTeyoternhá:’kton Used for whooping cough in children, emetic, physic, removing bile and diarrhoea.
Black Snake Oil Used to prevent and treat rheumatism.
Blessed Thistle Used as a bitter tonic, astringent, promotes sweating, antibacterial, expectorant, induce vomiting and as a uterine stimulant.
Blood RootTekané:kwaks Used for nervous irritation, lower a high pulse, weakness/palpitation of the heart, chronic eczema, congestion of blood to the head, migraines, menstrual problems, bronchitis, croup and as an appetite stimulant. Considered toxic and is a very powerful root.
Blueberry Leaves Used for kidney, gallbladder and diabetes, helps rid the body of excessive blood sugar, bladder, prostate and kidney inflammation, visual disorders, digestive disorders and haemorrhoids.
Blue BeechYotenakaratí:wen Used for diarrhoea in babies and scabies.
Blue CohoshOronya Tekaraontoken Used for difficulty with conception (hormone balancer), anti-inflammatory diseases, menstrual cramps, during labour (pain reliever, prompt delivery-use 3-4 weeks before delivery), colic, cramps, hysteria, rheumatism and antispasmodic (menstrual migraines).
BonesetTeyonerahtawe’éhston Used for colds, fevers, afterbirth tea, kidneys, gonorrhoea, laxative, syphilis, headaches, broken bones, to help quitting drinking, typhoid, pneumonia and stomach pain
Burdock:Orho te’kó:wa Used for cleansing skin, soothing kidneys, boils, canker sores, styes, gout, rheumatism, syphilis, sciatica, gonorrhoea, mad dog bites, fever, pain reliever and hastens healing, acne, bunions, eczema, ringworm, impotence, headaches, bee stings, earaches, bruises, blood medicine, and ulcers. 
ButternutTyohwá:ta Used for dysentery, diarrhoea, worms, consumption, thread and pin worms, acne, angina, chest pain, eczema, headache, herpes, impetigo, migraine and ringworm. 
Catniptakos kontineráhta’ks Used for diarrhoea in children, bellyache in children, vomiting from fever, headaches, cough, cold, sore throat, laxative and restless babies. 
Calendula Flowers Used as a lymphatic, reduces inflammation in throat and stomach, cancer management, skin conditions and haemorrhoids.  
CattailOnó:ta Used for gonorrhoea in women, sprains and breast cysts.  
Cedar Berries Used for insulin production in pancreas, helps the body fight arthritis, asthma, cough, congestion, hepatitis, muscle stiffness. Toxic in large amounts, avoid while pregnant or nursing or with kidney and urinary tract problems.  
Chamomile Flowers Used as a gentle sedative, anxiety, insomnia, indigestion, gastritis, mouthwash, sore throat and as an eye bath.  
ChicoryOrón:ya niyotsi’tsyò:ten Used for laxative, diuretic, tonic, phlegm, purifies liver and spleen, rheumatism and joint stiffness, upset stomach, swelling due to abundance of milk, headache, and sedative and heart conditions.  
ChokecherryTyakonya’tawén:’eks Used for consumption, blood purifier for prenatal strength, haemorrhages, diarrhoea, wounds and cough syrup.  
Cleavers Used for urinary tract irritation or inflammation, fevers, kidney function, removes fever, heat, swelling or stagnation in lymphatic’s, scabs, eczema, psoriasis, wounds, burns, and scalds, various eruptions, good for children, cancer, and nervous system injuries. Avoid if you are diabetic.  
Clove Used to relieve toothaches, malaria, cholera, scabies, and tuberculosis, as a digestive aid, it eases the discomfort of gas and abdominal bloating, nausea, diarrhoea, its antispasmodic action eases coughs and, when applied topically, relieves muscle spasms, stimulant for the mind, improving memory, it is used to prepare for childbirth by stimulating and strengthening uterine contractions during labour, used to treat acne, skin ulcers, sores, and styes, mosquito and moth repellent, sucking on cloves is said to reduce temporarily the craving for alcohol.  
Clover Ahsenniyonerahtó:ken Used for blood medicine, menopause and to increase breast milk flow.  
Coca Plant Used as a stimulant to overcome fatigue, hunger, and thirst, effective against altitude sickness, anaesthetic to alleviate the pain of headache, rheumatism, wounds and sores, broken bones, childbirth, nosebleeds malaria, ulcers, asthma, to improve digestion, to guard against bowel laxity, as an aphrodisiac and in improving longevity. 
ColtsfootTsyonehswénrye Used for bronchitis, chronic cough, upper respiratory tract, opens chest. Can be toxic in high doses, avoid prolonged use.  
Comfrey Used as poultice for bruising, pulled muscles, ligaments, sprains and blunt injuries and congestive bronchial conditions.  
Crampbark Used in labour when problems with dilation of the cervix, vasodilator, relaxing, chronic pelvic pain, loss of menses, conception difficulties, constipation, fever, high blood pressure and irritable bowel syndrome.  
Cranberry high bush viburnum/bearberryTó:kware Used for fallen womb after birth and to promote afterbirth, bad blood, fever and as a laxative.  
CranesbillTsistáhkwat Used for sore mouth, sores on face, venereal disease, naval of baby when it does not heal, blisters, gonorrhoea, sore throat, chancre sores, heart trouble, and to counter effect love medicine.  
Creeping Bellflower Used for whooping cough, men’s medicine (erectile) and induce labour in first time mothers. 
Curare Used as a muscle relaxant or paralyser.  
DandelionTekaronhyaká:nere Used for urinary complaints, rheumatism, liver, gall and spleen diseases, skin diseases, beneficial to female organs, anaemia.  
Devil’s Club Root Used for diabetes, arthritis, rheumatism, fevers, coughs, colds, swollen glands and stomach ailments. 
Dutchman Breecheséhskenhn akó:nenhste Used for strengthening limbs in distance runners.  
Eastern White Pine Used for weakness in infants when they do not walk at 2-3 years of age, difficulty in breathing in overweight people, powder for chafed babies, cleans stomach, rheumatism, cramps, stiffness in limbs, prevents typhoid, venereal disease, Tuberculosis, preventing sickness, broken tailbones, heals navels on newborns, emetic from grief, cuts, wounds, cough syrup, scabs on face, drawing out slivers and thorns and scrofula.  
Elecampane RootYotsistohkwaróhare/te yaonhwentsyón:ko Used as a tonic, especially after the flu or bronchitis, loosens phlegm, acute/chronic bronchitis, coughs, congestion, asthma, emphysema, post-fever recuperation, whooping cough, blood sugar stabilizer (diabetes), and is safe for children.  
Elm (American, white)Akará:tsi Used for excessive menstruation, piles and broken bones.  
Eyebright Used for eye conditions (irritation, redness, infection, inflammation,) nasal discharge, sinusitis, chronic sneezing, hay fever, sore throat and middle ear problems. 
False Solomon’s SealKitkit ohéha (A) Used for snake bites, blood remedies, tapeworms and miscarriage. 
Fenugreek Seed Used to soften, loosen and expel mucous, lowers cholesterol, blood cleanser and antiseptic, kills parasites, and helps regulate sugar and insulin levels.  
Feverfew Used for fever, migraine headaches, arthritis, painful periods, sluggish menstrual flow, safe for children but avoid during pregnancy.  
Filbert (Beaked Hazel)Ohsóhit Used for teething babies, haemorrhage after childbirth, hay fever, prenatal strength and loneliness.  
FireweedTkahontékha Used for painful urination, pain in the body, internal injury, consumption, kidneys and swollen knees. 
Flowering FernYaonhakèn:ra Used for cold, headache, rheumatism, gonorrhoea, weak blood, kidneys, menstruation and paralysis.  
Garlic Used to promote the body's energy and strength. Garlic is used in today's natural medicines to help prevent heart disease, strokes, and hypertension. 
Giant PuffballAweráhsa tewatenon’ónkwas Used for sore naval in children and pregnant women.  
Ginkgo Bilboa Used to protect cell health, keeps blood vessels strong, for memory problems, poor circulation, depression and diabetes.  
Goat’s Rue Used to reduce blood sugar, stimulate milk production, promotes fevers, foot bath for tired feet and snake bites.  
GoldenrodOtsí:nekwar niyotsi’tsyò:ten Used for no appetite due to too much gall, jumpy baby, biliousness, to stop vomiting, jaundice, upset stomach due to liver disorder, kidney medicine, dizziness, weakness, sunstroke and as an emetic.  
Goldenseal Used for heart trouble, fever, earaches, whopping cough, diarrhoea, liver trouble, Tuberculosis, sore eyes and pneumonia.  
Goldthread coptisOtsí:nekwar nikahtehrò:ten (A) Used for sore mouths in children, vomiting, sore eyes, sore mouth, sore throat, trench mouth, vomiting in babies, jaundice, ulcers in the mouth, blindness and blood purifier for babies. 
Ground Ivy Used for a tonic, lead poisoning, eye-wash, coughs, colds and chronic bronchitis.  
Gymnema Used for raising insulin levels/lowering blood sugar, taking away craving for sugar, stomach ailments, constipation, water retention and liver diseases.  
Hawthorn crataegusO’nyón:wara (A) Used to stop menstrual flow. 
Hazelnut corylus:tshera/Teyotita’á:ronte (A) Used for teething baby, haemorrhage after childbirth, hay fever and prenatal strength.  
Heal-all
Prunella Vulgaris
 Used for treatment of fevers, diarrhoea, sore mouth and throat, internal bleeding, colds, coughs, stomach cramps, crying babies, sickness from grief, heaves, sore legs and kneecaps, vomiting, strengthen the womb, diabetes, backache, smallpox preventative and weaknesses of the liver and heart 
Hemlock SpruceOnen’ta’ón:we Used for rheumatism, coughs, colds and venereal disease. 
HepaticaKontirontá:non Used to prevent conception, childbirth inducement in middle-aged woman having first child, blood purifier and sore abdomen in pregnant women. 
HopsYetsistsyayenthos Used as a central nervous system relaxant, insomnia, ease tension and anxiety, restlessness, headaches, indigestion, ulcers and pain reliever. 
Horsetail HerbTeyostoteritsheronte Used as a tissue healer, urinary tract disorders, prostate disorders, lung disorders, stomach ulcers, astringent, heavy menstruation, skin conditions, mouthwash for gum infections and throat inflammations.  
Hyssop Used for asthma, colds, chest problems, shortness of breath, increases circulation and reduces blood pressure, tonic for respiratory and GI tract, externally for wounds and ulcers.  
Ipecac Used for morning sickness associated with pregnancy, to stop nausea that is not relieved by vomiting, nosebleeds producing bright red blood, dental bleeding, diarrhoea with cramping abdominal pain, asthma of sudden onset, hoarseness or loss of voice following a cold and physical or mental exhaustion.  
Ironwood ostryaTsyoráhsa Used for catarrh coughs, rectal cancer and swellings.  
Jack in the PulpitKárhon (O) Tyehnónhserote/Kahnéhserote (A) Used for diarrhoea in children, cramps, sores on face, pains, lonely baby, non-conception, bruises, bronchial colds, to make you sneeze, sore eyes and sore joints.  
Labrador Tea Used for weak blood, colds, tuberculosis, arthritis, dizziness, stomach problems, heartburn, laxative, kidney complaints and diabetes.  
Lady FernYetskarónhkwa Used to help urination and to stop breast pain caused by childbirth, to ease labour pains, heal wounds and to get rid of worms 
Lavender Used to strengthen nervous system, depression, promote sleep, headaches and rheumatic pain, bee stings, mosquito bites and burns.  
Leatherwood dircaOtkénhseri (A) Used for swelling on the legs or limbs, sciatica or strained back, venereal germs, gonorrhoea, syphilis, typhoid fever, lumbago, consumption, internal inflammation, strength and as an aphrodisiac.  
Lemon Balm Used as a salve for herpes and other outbreaks, colic and flatulence, irritable bowl syndrome, gastritis, nervous conditions and as a sleep aid.  
Lichen Used for cleanses lungs, resolves phlegm, controls bleeding, removing toxin, headache, ocular irritation, cough, profuse phlegm, malaria, scrofula, leucorrhea, functional bleeding, wound bleeding, carbuncle, toxic snake bite. 
Licorice Root Used for dry coughs, bronchitis, chest complaints, stomach ulcers, inflammation of kidney and bladder, chronic constipation, chronic skin conditions but avoid with high blood pressure.  
LilacKanonhkwén:’onte Used for sore mouth.  
Lime Blossom Used for nervous tension, preventative against arteriosclerosis and high blood pressure, some migraines, feverish colds/flu, tonic, relieves cough and hoarseness.  
Little Peoples Tobacco (Lobelia Inflata) Used to pray to the Little People and ask for their help in locating medicines. Also used as cure for smoking and drinking, venereal disease, ulcers and sore on legs, abscess on the side of the neck. This is also a protection medicine.  
Long Root (Smartweed) Used for fever and chills, indigestion, swollen stomachs in children and rheumatism. 
Mallows Used for chills, swellings of any kind, when baby’s stomach swells from cow’s milk and improper food and lack of energy 
MandrakeOnénhotste Used for laxative, cathartic, physic, increase strength, corn medicine, boils and cathartic.  
Marjoram Wild Used for colds, flu, promotes sweating, mouth and throat inflammations, infected cuts and wounds, coughs, whopping coughs and tension headaches.  
Marshmallow Roots/Leaves Used for excess stomach acid, peptic ulceration and gastritis, mildly laxative, intestinal problems, colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, varicose veins and boils.  
Meadowsweet Used for rheumatic pains, fever, pain relief, cooling, reduces inflammation, protects digestive tract, gentle remedy or acidity and some times of diarrhoea, is good for children. Avoid use with aspirin sensitivity.  
MeadowrueOtsi’tsyakérha Used for sore eyes due to head cold, heart palpitations, nosebleed and gall medicine.  
Milk Thistle Seed Used to safely increase milk secretions in breastfeeding mothers, increase secretion and flow of bile, all gall-bladder problems, enhances liver function and for skin disorders.  
MilkweedOtshehwèn:ta (O) Kanon’tínekenhs (O) Otshehón:ta (A) Used for strength, stricture, protection against witchcraft, heal navels in babies, tooth extraction, diuretic, lame back and kidneys.  
Milky Oat Straw Used for calming nerves, shingles, herpes simplex, skin disorders, used in baths to reduce inflammation and desire to scratch.  
Motherwort Used for rheumatism, sciatica, nerves, urinary cramps, sleeplessness, delirium, chest colds, congestion, menopausal changes, ease false labour pains and as a heart tonic.  
Mullen/MulleinSiksik otáhson (O) ótkon oyén:kwa (A) Used for lung congestion, coughs, colds, shortness of breath, haemorrhoids, kidney diseases, ulcers, mumps, sore throats, sciatica, colic, constipation and asthma, female diseases, headaches in children, skin worms, asthma, regulate bowels of babies, swellings or abscess, hiccups, earaches, baby chafe, piles and to clean old wounds.  
Nettle Used for anaemia, excessive menstruation, haemorrhoids, arthritis, rheumatism, skin complaints, lower blood pressure and heart rate and as a diuretic.  
Northern White Cedar Used for cuts, bruises, sprains, sores, weakness in the hips due to untreated broken tailbone, rheumatism and colds.  
OakKaríhton Used for catarrh, consumption, female troubles, sugar medicine, diarrhoea, ruptured or not properly healed navels and sore throats that will not heal.  
Oregon Grape Root Used for liver, stops diarrhea, fever and arthritis. Avoid use when pregnant.  
Penny Royal Used for headaches, fever and chills.  
Peppermint Used for fevers, colds, flu, gas release, migraines, abdominal complaints, ulcerative colitis, calming, anti-spasmodic and to calm coughing.  
Pepper Rootà:tsya Used for headaches. Pepper-root is also used as hunting and fishing medicine.  
PigweedSkanontanón:we Used for a baby passes and mothers milk remains and diarrhoea.  
PineOhnéhta Used for coughs, cuts, sores, ulcers, gonorrhoea, colds, ingrown toenails, laxative, rheumatism, burns, to get rid of fleas, weakness in infants, difficulty breathing in obese people, chafed babies, cleans stomach, cramps, stiffness in limbs, prevents typhoid, venereal disease, consumption, prevents sickness, broken coccyx, heal navels in newborns and as a ghost medicine.  
Pinkroot/Indian Pink Used for abscess in the breast, canker and fever sores, cramps, fevers. Indian Pink is also used to strengthen others medicines and to induce vomiting. 
PlantainAtenhnéha, Teyohahó:ron Used for burns, sores, fever, cuts, bruises, sore joints, sprains, bleeding. Bladder, annual female medicine, spider bites, nervous breakdowns, stomach pain, chest pains, heart trouble, blood medicine, arthritis and erysipelas (strep infection of the skin).  
Plantain Root Used for diarrhoea, dysentery, haemorrhoids, gastritis, peptic ulcers, irritable bowl syndrome, cystitis, bronchitis, sinusitis, coughs, asthma and hay fever.  
Pipsissewa Herb Used for kidney/bladder troubles, chronic urethral/prostate irritation, skin disease, diuretic, tonic, cleanses, stimulates, aids removal of waste products and causes perspiration.  
Poison IvyYakonhón:taras (O) Yakohontaráhstha (A)   
Pond AlgaeKanekwenhsákta (K)  
Prickly Ash Bark Used for asthma, dysmenorrhoea, earache, headache, jaw pain, lactation, painful menstruation, injured nerves, nervousness, neuralgia, gonorrhoea, to promote miscarriage, sciatica, toothaches and ulcers.  
Prickly Ash Used for toothache, neuralgia, gonorrhoea, pain, to promote miscarriage, cramps and worms.  
PuffballTewatyen’kwarókwas (K) Used for sore navels in children and pregnant women, headaches, respiratory issues, nosebleeds and as a protection medicine.  
Pussytoes Used for toothaches and leucorrhea. 
Quack grassErhar onawí:ra   
RagweedSkaweró:wane Used for cramps from picking berries, stroke, diarrhoea and as a blood medicine.  
Raspberry Leaves Used for endometriosis, chronic pelvic pain, absence of menses, morning sickness and nausea (2nd trimester) and for an easy birth.  
Red Clover Used for children’s skin problems, eczema, psoriasis, coughs, bronchitis, whooping cough, blood purifier/thinner, lymph decongestant (nostrils, glands of the neck, mumps) and as an immune tonic.  
Red-berried ElderAhrhakéha/ohne’n (A)   
Red RaspberrySkanekwen’terá:yen (O) Skanekwen’terá:ne (A)   
Red/Swamp Milkweed Used for gout, worms, diabetes and headaches 
Rosehips Used for calming, astringent brings back joy and will to live, depression, illness and sadness, general debility and exhaustion, constipation, mild gall-bladders problems.  
Sage Used for gas, fevers, rheumatic pains, consumption, sore throat, fibroids, cough, night sweats, ulcers and wounds, dandruff and hair loss. Sage is also a cleanser.  
Sage Officnalis Used as a women’s medicine and for fibroids.  
SassafrasWenhnákeras (A) Used for rheumatism, fever in women after childbirth, blood purifier, eye inflammation or cataracts, nosebleeds, high blood pressure, wounds, cuts and bruises and diabetes.  
SavannaOhsa’kén:ta  
Sensitive FernTyohtehrí:seron Used for increasing breast milk flow, venereal disease, pain after childbirth, gonorrhoea, hair loss, promote menses, swellings, cramps and sore abdomen, intestinal troubles, to give strength after childbirth, consumption, fertility drug for woman, arthritis and deep cuts.  
Scouring rushOhswén:nihst Used for eye medicine, kidney trouble, backache, venereal disease, too much urination. One resource also states, “the devil made this plant for wampum for the Indian people, but it is a poor substitute.”  
Shagbark HickoryOnennóhkara Used to kill worms in adults and to treat arthritis 
Shepherds Purse Used for water retention, kidney problems, both stimulate menstrual flow and helps reduce excess flow, diarrhoea, wounds and nose bleeds.  
Skullcap Used for calming, nervous conditions, headaches, nervous exhaustion, PMS, epilepsy, insomnia, excitability, bites (poisonous insects, snakes), restlessness, antispasmodic, reduces fever, promotes sweating in children.  
Skunk oilAní:tas kénye Used to cure laryngitis, induce vomiting, thereby clearing lungs and calming coughs 
Slippery ElmOkón:ra, Ohóksera’ Used for constipation, haemorrhoids, herpes, pain, syphilis, digestive and urinary tract issues, inflammation of the stomach, bowels and kidneys, ulcers and stomach cancers, throat irritation, cancers/tumours of the womb and other female organ issues, cuts, congestion, enlarged prostate sore eyes, sleepiness and weakness, dry births, to clean stomach and swollen neck glands. 
Snake Root Flower Used to treat snake bites, birthing medicine, break fevers, promote flow of breast milk, rheumatism, backache in babies, blood purifier, sore navels in children, dropsy, sweat bath, inflamed womb, venereal disease affecting the blood, and to relieve pain 
Solomon’s SealKitkit O’éhta Used for broken bones, sprains, injured tendons and ligaments, tendonitis, arthritis, slipped discs and arthritis. 
Spearmint Used for fevers, colds, flu, gas release, migraines, abdominal complaints, ulcerative colitis, calming, anti-spasmodic and calms coughs.  
Spicebush Used for colds, gonorrhoea, syphilis, cold sweats, measles, has opposite affect on men as Creeping Bellflower.  
Spring BeautyKenkwitehnéha Used for convulsions in small children.  
SpruceO’só:ra Used for chewing gum, ingrown toenails, cuts, colds and as a spring tonic.  
St. Johns Wort Used for suppressing the menses, preventing sterility and fevers.  
Strawberry (wild)Niyohontéhsha Used for digestive upsets, diarrhoea, cleansing diuretic for rheumatism, gout, arthritis, and jaundice. Also used as a woman’s medicine.  
Sugar MapleOwahta/ Wahta  
SumacTará:kwi Used for skin diseases, leucorrhoea, rectal conditions, chronic diarrhoea, malaria, fevers, canker sores, sore throats, irregular menses, smallpox preventative, worms in children, coughs, phlegm, measles, bumps and bruises, scarlet fever, mumps, piles, canker sores and diabetes.  
Swamp Marigold  Induces vomiting to ward off/repel negative medicines.  
SweetflagOnennó:ra (O) Used for relieving muscle spasms, crohn’s disease, tonic, gastritis, gastric ulcers, baby colic when gassy, stimulate appetite, lower cholesterol, toothache, headache, sore throat, earache and colds.  
Sweetgrass Becoming quite rare – this wonderfully fragrant dried grass is used for basketry, crafts and ceremonies by many Native people.  
Sycamore Salve Used for skin eruptions, scabs and eczema. 
Tall Coreopsis Used to relieve arthritic pain 
Thimbleberries
(long black berry)
Ohsá:yase Used for whooping cough in children, emetic, physic, spring medicine for removing bile and diarrhoea. 
ThistleOhnyón:wara Used as a tobacco substitute, for boils, bleeding piles and cancer.  
Touch-me-not: Medicine plant used for urinary issues, fever, sore or raw eyelids, women’s breast issues, poison ivy, mosquito bites, childbirth pain and to induce labour.  
Trillium (white)Tsyoná:tsyik (A) Used for rheumatism, stiff muscles, to detect witches, itch, headache, blood medicine, chapped hands, suntan oil and for luck and protection of the teeth.  
Trillium (yellow, purple)Tsyoná:tsya Used for rheumatism, stiff muscles, itch, headache, catarrh, chapped hands, suntan oil and as a blood medicine.  
VioletTewatenyarotárhos (O) (northern blue violet viola)-Tekonnyarotárhoks (A) Used for wounds, sick babies, and as an eyewash.  
Water LilySe’kó:wa (O) Onenoron’kó:wa (A) Used for swollen abdomen, smallpox, consumption, protection medicine, ghost medicine and heart trouble.  
White BirchWatena’ketá:rons Used for bleeding piles.  
White CedarOhnentakwenhténhsera Used for cuts, bruises, sprains, sores, broken coccyx, rheumatism, given as a tea after giving birth, and colds.  
White Pine Used for sore throats, colds, rheumatism, tuberculosis, influenza, chronic indigestion, kidney trouble, expectorant, chest affections, tonsillitis, weakness in infants, difficulty in breathing, chafed babies, cleans stomach, stiffness in limbs, prevents typhoid, cramps, venereal disease, broken tailbone, heal naval on newborns, emetic from grief, cuts and wounds, bruises, scabs on face, drawing thorns and slivers, poison ivy, laryngitis and croup. White pine is also used as a protection and cleanser.  
Wild Cherry Bark Used for sedative, soothing astringent, cough medicines, diarrhoea of children, indigestion, bronchitis, phlegm in throat and chest, cuts, headaches, inflammation of lungs, blood medicine, burns and heart palpitations.  
Wild Elderberry Used for flu symptoms, measles, headaches, laxative for children, cuts, heart disease, kidneys and stomach troubles.  
Wild GingerTsyonehskwénrye Used for colds and fevers in children, prevents bad dreams, protects other medicines, convulsions in children, headache in children, typhoid, fevers, sweating, long-lasting headaches, urinary disorders, lack of appetite, scarlet fever, coughs, chest congestion, spring tonic for the elderly, boils, laziness and measles. Wild ginger is also used as a protection medicine. Wild Ginger root is used for reducing pain, detoxifies, fights infections, good for boils, swelling, water retention and arthritis.  
Wild GooseberryTsyorenatstí:yo (A)   
Wild GrapeO’nénhare  
Wild OnionOnon’óksera (O) Onónkseri (A)  
Wild Quinine Used for colds, ear infections, sore throats, fevers, Epstein Barr, fatigue, respiratory infections, gastrointestinal infections 
Wild StrawberryNiyohontéhsha Used for cleansing the system. Both a blood purifier and blood builder, the wild strawberry is a laxative, diuretic and astringent. Also used to regulate menses, strokes, and colic in babies, styes and canker sores.  
Willow Herb (small) Used for bladder cancer, cystitis, kidney and bladder problems, urinary disorders, men with prostate abnormalities, and after prostate gland operations.  
Witch HazelTakwa’ahserón:ni (A) Used for varicose veins, haemorrhoids, bruises, inflamed swelling, astringent, will control diarrhoea and ease dysentery.  
YarrowAró:sen otáhson (O) Skaweró:wane aotíhonte (A) Used for acute and chronic bronchitis, chronic fatigue syndrome, common cold and flu, diarrhoea, absence of menses, fever, gut infections, hepatitis, high blood pressure, heavy menstrual bleeding and fibroids.  
Yellow DockÍtyete Used for tonic. Liver problems, cleans gallbladder, lymph system and blood.  
Yellow Lady’s SlipperKwa’kórya raóhta (A) Used for nervousness, lack of energy and as a blood medicine. 
Yew (Canada)Onen’tyón:ni Used for colds and added to all medicines to make them stronger.